"The provision of nutrition information to consumers forms the cornerstone of any policy framework to address poor dietary intakes. At a global level — or where there are no legislative requirements already in place — we will ensure that, as a minimum, our products provide nutrition information on-pack per portion for the key nutrients of public health concern. Where execution on-pack may not be possible (due to limited space or type of packaging) we will ensure that this information is provided to consumers in other forms (e.g., websites, in-store leaflets, consumer care lines, etc)."

— IFBA letter to WHO Director-General Dr. Margaret Chan 13 May, 2008

 

Providing transparent and fact-based nutrition information to help consumers make informed choices is a key element of the food and beverage industry's commitment to WHO's 2004 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. We provide consumers with practical health and nutrition information using a variety of tools and media, including on-pack labelling, point-of-sale materials, company websites, social media apps, help lines, brochures and newsletters. We support nutrition literacy and education initiatives around the world to promote healthy eating awareness and behaviours conducive to a healthy, active lifestyle.

These principles provide that nutrition information provided to consumers should be objective, fact- and science-based; presented in a legible, clear and visible format; and understandable to consumers to enable them to make informed dietary decisions about the foods and beverages they choose. Nutrition information will be provided on the key nutrients of public health interest.

Read IFBA's 2014 Principles for a global approach to fact-based nutrition information >

View our members’ commitments on nutrition information

IFBA Member Commitment
DV = daily value; DI = daily intake; GDA = guideline daily amount; FOP = front-of-pack; BOP = back of pack
The CocaCola Company Providing transparent nutrition information is a global policy for The Coca-Cola Company. The policy requires nutrition information back-of-pack and features calories on the front of its packages. Where packaging or products are exempt from the requirements of the policy, nutrition information is provided by alternate means such as websites. The Coca-Cola Company provides leadership in the implementation of front-of-pack calorie information and consumer information campaigns, as part of national, regional and international initiatives carried out in collaboration with public and private stakeholders.
Ferrero Ferrero provides its consumers with correct and transparent nutritional information, in compliance with current legislation in different countries. Ferrero is also committed to providing voluntary nutritional information on FOP, in order to have more readable and comprehensive labels.
General Mills General Mills’ product packaging provides clear nutrition information for consumers who want access to information that will help them construct a healthy diet. Demonstrating its commitment to clear nutrition labelling, General Mills continues to voluntarily provide nutrition highlights on the front of all packages, where space allows, across Australia, Europe and the U.S.A. The nutrient content per portion is compared to guideline levels for the entire day, helping people understand how these foods fit within their total daily diet.
Grupo Bimbo Grupo Bimbo is committed to providing nutritional information per portion on its products which, at a minimum, details the content of nutrients most critical to public health, including energy, total carbohydrates, sugars, protein, fats, saturated fats, sodium and any nutrient for which a claim is made. The company is also committed to promoting healthy lifestyles and each product label includes a recommendation that consumers practice at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day.
Kellogg Kelloggis committed to increasing the nutrition education and active lifestyle communications it provides to families around the world. The company believes nutrition literacy is crucial in helping consumers make informed choices for themselves and their families. Through on-pack labelling and website content, the company provides comprehensive nutrition and ingredient information, including details on calories, fibre, fats, sugar, sodium and other nutrients for all of its foods.
Mars By end 2016, in addition to Mars’ existing front-of-pack nutrition information, the company will provide advice on its website for how often its products that have higher levels of added sugar, salt or fat could be consumed within a balanced diet. By 2021, this information will also appear on all of the company’s pack labels.
McDonald's McDonald’s is committed to helping consumers make information nutrition choices. From printed brochures and nutrition labelling on select food packing, to innovative mobile apps, Quick Response (QR) codes and online nutrition calculators, as well as calories on menu boards, this multi-faceted approach gives McDonald’s consumers the information they seek in many markets around the world.
Mondelēz International Mondelēz believes it is important to be consistent in how it talks to its consumers around the world. To make informed decisions, people need the right information delivered clearly and simply. The company provides nutrition labelling on all products in all markets worldwide, in line with international standards, including CODEX Alimentarius. Information is provided per serving and/or per 100 g (depending upon local regulations) on energy, protein, carbohydrates, sugars, fat, saturated fat, fibre and sodium (or salt) and for energy, protein, carbohydrates and total fat for small packages where space is limited. Labels usually include the percentage that a nutrient provides of a person’s recommended daily intake, such as DV or RI. Where a claim is made about a nutrient (e.g. a good source of fibre) or when a specific nutrient is added for fortification purposes, information on that nutrient is included on the label and in accordance with local regulations.
Nestlé Nestlé aims to help consumers improve their understanding of appropriate eating habits, with clear information about ingredients and portion size on its products. At the end of 2014, approximately 92.8% of the foods and beverages the company sells worldwide displayed the Nestlé Nutritional Compass®, which helps consumers make informed decisions about the food and beverage choices they make. The compass includes a breakdown of the nutritional composition of the product, tips for a healthy, balanced diet and contact details for more information. Nestlé has committed to:

  • By 2015 - Provide portion guidance on all children’s and family products to encourage healthy portion consumption.
  • By 2016 –
    • All relevant food and beverage products worldwide will have Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)-based labels on front of pack.
    • Introduce GDA-based labelling, based on children’s reference values, to all products designed for children, where regulations allow.
  • Make information more accessible by providing further product information and nutrition advice on pack, via Quick Response (QR) codes for smartphones.
PepsiCo PpsiCo is committed to helping consumers make informed choices through fact-based, simple and easy-to-understand information about how the key nutrients in each product fit in a balanced and healthy diet. In 2014, PepsiCo adopted its Global Labelling Policy, which calls for:

  • Nutritional information on the amount of energy (as calories, kilocalories or kilojoules), protein, carbohydrate, total sugars, total fat, saturated fat and sodium per 100 g per ml or per serving on the side- or back-of-pack; also required for any nutrients for which a health or nutrition claim is made.
  • Information on energy per 100 g per ml or per serving on FOP in all countries.
  • The percentage of the official GDA, DV or equivalents for energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium/salt and total sugars on either FOP or BOP in countries where such values are available.
Unilever Unileveris committed to providing simple and trustworthy nutritional information. The company aims to provide clear, simple labelling on its products to help consumers make choices for a nutritionally balanced diet. All of the company’s products in Europe and North America provide full nutritional information. Unilever has developed a global approach to nutrition labelling which includes:

  • Big 8 nutrients - energy, protein, carbohydrates, sugars, fat, saturated fat, fibre and sodium (or salt) – (and nutrients for which a claim is made) per portion or per 100 g/ml on BOP.
  • Big 4 nutrients - energy, protein, carbohydrates and total fat - for small or unusually-shaped packs, provided this is legally permissible. Additional information can be provided through other channels, e.g. websites or help lines.
  • For energy, sugars, fat, saturated fat and salt, the percentage contribution to the daily dietary recommendation is given as an icon or text on BOP.
  • Unilever supports an industry-wide, voluntary interpretative FOP logo based on agreed nutrition criteria, facilitating consumer understanding of the food’s nutritional aspects.
  • All elements must comply with local legislation and/or agreed national codes of practice.Energy FOP, available as an icon, indicating either the percentage contribution to the daily recommendation or as an absolute quantity.

Unilever has put a global governance model in place to ensure the company takes an aligned and harmonized approach to labelling, in line with its targets.

Front-of-Pack Labelling Systems

In order to make nutrition information even more accessible to consumers, IFBA members, that are packaged food companies, began implementing FOP labelling systems in 2006. These systems make it easy for a consumer to see at a glance what is in a serving and how much it contributes to the average diet. Today, a combination of voluntary industry-led initiatives and government-endorsed voluntary schemes exist in Asia, Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Ecuador, the EU, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, the U.K. and the U.S.A.

Year Region/Country Description
2006 australiaflag
Australia
DIG (the Daily Intake Guide) – the industry’s front-of-pack food labelling system launched.
2006 ukflag
United Kingdom
Industry voluntary implementation of front-of-pack labelling for five key nutrients – calories, sugars, fat, saturated fat and salt.
2011 canadaflag
Canada
Front-of-pack nutrition labels displaying GDAs for energy, sugar, fat and sodium.
2011 flag-thailand-150
Thailand
Front-of-pack nutrition labels displaying GDAs for energy, sugar, fat and sodium.
2011 flag-usa-150
U.S.A.
“Clear on Calories” , a front-of-pack caloric labelling initiative launched by the American Beverage Association
“Facts Up Front” launched by industry – displaying key nutrient information on the front of food and beverage packages, showing calories per serving and information on three nutrients – saturated fat, sodium and sugar. Labels may also include information on one or more nutrients that Americans need to have more of as part of a healthy diet – fibre, protein, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium and iron. Implementation began in 2012. . Learn more >
2012 flag-eu-150
EU
A voluntary initiative by industry committing to use a consistent, harmonized GDA labelling system in all 27 EU Member States (in addition to displaying calorie information front-of-pack) with implementation by end of 2014.
2012 flag-malaysia-150
Malaysia
A voluntary single fact-based front-of-pack nutrition label for energy (based on 2000 kcal) supported by the Malaysian Minister of Health; to be followed by icons for protein, carbohydrates and fat.
2012 flag-mexico-150
Mexico
“Checa y Elige,”a voluntary industry initiative providing a simple guide to the amount of key nutrients (per pack, item or portion), including energy, saturated fats, sugars and sodium and percentage of the recommended daily intake.. Learn more >
2012 flag-philippines-150
The Philippines
Voluntary declarations for energy or calorie content. Initiative supported by the Philippines Food & Drug Administration under the Ministry of Health.
While the product label is a principal source of nutrition information, it is not the only source. Through company websites and social networks, brochures and leaflets and consumer care lines IFBA members are also promoting good nutrition and healthy lifestyles with information on diet and wellness. Product-dedicated pages on brand websites display nutrition and ingredient information, recipes and meal plans. Online tools provide portion guidance or for aids for determining nutritional recommendations. Members offer regional or country websites, with healthy living messages tailored to local audiences, or offer specialized websites or blogs targeted to specific audiences. Consumers are increasingly using mobile applications to research products and make purchasing decisions. To meet this demand, IFBA members are employing new digital tools and technologies.

Grupo Bimbo:The company promotes healthy lifestyles through various social networks that are widely accepted and available to consumers—Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, blogs, etc.– providing readers with nutritional articles, diet plans, recipes, video recipes, and information about the company's products. Grupo Bimbo's nutrition website offers consumers a number of tools for eating right and obtaining health advice. The company currently has more than 4,500 followers on Twitter and 99,500 fans on Facebook, through @Nutrición Grupo Bimbo.

Kellogg:'s“ChooseMyBowl”website helps people follow the nutrition recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, featuring tips, tools and other resources to help consumers understand how specific foods fit into “food groups,” and how cereal, milk and fruit delivers servings and nutrients from the grains, dairy and fruit food groups. The website also helps to educate consumers on portion control, with illustrations that help to “right-size” a cereal meal. In Latin America, Kellogg’s Nutri INSK® mobile phone app is empowering consumers to make healthier food choices and to reinforce wellness habits. The free app allows users to keep track of the foods they eat throughout the day and provides food choice recommendations based on the individual’s calorie and nutrient needs. Users also receive daily tips on maintaining a healthy lifestyle through diet and exercise.

Mars: has launched the Clever Naschen, or “Smart Snacking” website in Germany; the Mars Vida Saludable and Mars Vida Saudável or “Healthy Life” websites in Latin America; and in the six Middle Eastern countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Planet Mars website.
McDonald's: began providing nutrition information to consumers in the U.S.A. more than 30 years ago. Nutrition information is provided via the company website, mobile applications, select packaging, tray liners and calorie labelling on menu boards. In January 2013, in the U.S.A., McDonald’s unveiled new packaging designs on all carry-out bags and fountain beverage cups with Quick Response Codes (QR codes) to help consumers make real time informed choices. In 2014, the company continued to expand this initiative with text translated into 18 languages.

Mondelēz International : launched “I Love Biscuits,” in 2014, a mobile application created in France in partnership with nutrition and psychology professionals, which offers breakfast or snack recommendations tailored to the user’s preferences, as well as nutrition information for the product and the meal in which the product is consumed.

Healthy eating is all about balance – eating the right amount to match how active you are, and enjoying a variety of foods, so you get all the nutrients you need. Nestlé has created a portion plate, and a set of nutrition basics fact sheets on fibre, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, caffeine, whole grains and probiotics. Learn more >

Nestlé Portion Guidance™ : is a voluntary initiative, based on dietary recommendations from around the world, designed to help re-frame portion norms, particularly in energy-dense food and beverage categories where habitual servings have increased over time. It is not intended to replace existing authoritative dietary recommendations, but rather to bridge the gap between those recommendations and the labelling regulations in guiding consumers towards more carefully considered portions as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

PepsiCo is increasingly using a variety of electronic media to communicate nutrition information about its products to its consumers. For example, on both the Quaker Oats website and Facebook page, consumers can find heart health and nutrition content, including shareable videos and fitness tips. The “Nutrition Facts” iPhone app offers a nutritional information search tool for various PepsiCo products, including a calorie count feature and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference guide for approximately 9,000 foods.

IFBA members also help support the nutrition education of health professionals offering a variety of resources, including dedicated websites, newsletters, continuing education programmes and hosted symposiums on a variety of subjects, including the science, safety and health benefits of key ingredients used in food and beverage products, the importance of physical activity to health and well-being, and reducing risk factors through healthy eating habits and lifestyles.

The Coca-Cola Company:Global in scope, the Beverage Institute for Health & Wellness (BIHW) is part of The Coca-Cola Company’s ongoing commitment to use evidence-based science to advance knowledge and understanding of beverages, beverage ingredients, and the important role that active healthy lifestyles play in supporting health and wellbeing. It serves as a resource for health professionals, teachers, coaches and other professionals worldwide. Learn more > http://www.beverageinstitute.org/about-us/

KelloggsNutrition.com: Kellogg’s online resource for health care professionals – increased its global reach by 50 percent between January 2013 and the end of 2014, with more than 15,000 registered users from around the world. Learn more > https://www.kelloggsnutrition.com/worldwide/home.html.

General Mills:The staff of scientists and registered dietitians at General Mills’ Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition is focused on the development of quality products that nourish lives and contribute to healthy living and committed to supporting the work of health professionals. In October 2015, the Institute launched www.bellinstitute.com, a resource for health and wellness influencers around the world, including government officials, fitness professionals, medical doctors, health bloggers, dietitians, chefs, nurses and others. The website provides shareable and customizable handouts, educational videos and nutrition research. All content is grounded in science and covers health and wellness topics ranging from the benefits of eating breakfast to top trends in nutrition. Learn more > https://www.bellinstitute.com/en/

Mars:The Wrigley Oral Healthcare Programme (WOHP), partners with dentists and hygienists to promote the importance of oral hygiene, providing them with knowledge, resources and educational materials to help them improve their patients’ oral healthcare routine by integrating sugar-free gum after eating and drinking. Launched in 1989 in Germany, WOHP now extends to 47 countries. Learn more > http://www.wrigley.com/global/benefits-of-chewing/oral-healthcare-program.aspx.

The Nestlé Nutrition Institute (NNI):offers a variety of on- and off-line unbranded nutrition education services and programmes for healthcare professionals, medical students, scientists and nutrition communities addressing global nutrition and health concerns. Currently, the NNI is active in 195 countries, with 250,000 healthcare professionals registered as members of its educational website. As the world’s largest private publisher of nutritional information, the NNI offers about 3,000 publications most which are listed on Medline/PubMed and all of which can be downloaded for free by registered members. Learn more > https://www.nestlenutrition-institute.org/pages/default_us.aspx

IFBA members are also engaged in collaborations with governments, industry and civil society to increase nutrition literacy.

The Health Star Rating System (Australia and New Zealand): This initiative has been developed in partnership with industry, public health and consumer groups. This FOP labelling system rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods and assigns it a rating from ½ a star to five stars, providing a quick, easy and standard way to compare similar packaged foods. The system is being implemented from June 2014 on a voluntary basis by the food industry over the next five years. The Health Star Rating campaign was launched at the end of 2014 to raise awareness of the system; develop an understanding of how to read the label; prompt consideration of nutrition as part of purchasing behavior; and develop consumer confidence in the system as an independent, informative and easy to use nutritional guide.

Nutrition Facts Education Campaign (Canada): In support of the Government of Canada’s ongoing commitment to promote healthy eating by helping Canadians make more informed nutrition choices, industry including IFBA members partnered with Health Canada in the fall of 2010 to launch the “Nutrition Facts Education Campaign” (NFEC). This multi-media campaign focused on increasing consumer awareness and use of the “% Daily Value”, a component of the Nutrition Facts table. In early 2015, the food industry again partnered with Health Canada to launch the second phase of NFEC – “Focus on the Facts.” The campaign encourages consumers – especially parents of children aged 2 to 12 – to use the “Serving Size” in the Nutrition Facts table to compare similar foods. Since 2010, more than one billion food products featuring on-package NFEC messaging were distributed across Canada.

Nutrition Education Campaign (the Philippines): In 2014, the Filipino Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), together with the Philippine Chamber of Food Manufacturers launched a voluntary energy FOP nutrition labelling initiative as part of the government’s national awareness campaign to promote healthy lifestyles among Filipinos. As part of industry’s 2012 commitment to “partner with the Department of Health to deliver workable solutions and implement a multi-faceted approach in educating consumers to make informed choices toward a healthier lifestyle,” industry, together with the FDA, will develop and implement nutrition education campaigns at the national and grassroots levels. These programmes have already started in schools, with the intention of educating the young on how to read and understand the content on food labels. In 2013, the Department of Health and its partners launched the nationwide healthy lifestyle movement, “Philipinas Go4Health”, a public-private initiative aimed at helping prevent and control the prevalence of NCDs.

The Choices Programme (Global): Introduced in 2006 in The Netherlands in response to the WHO’s call for the food industry to take action in helping to tackle obesity, the Choices Programme is a unique multistakeholder initiative designed to help consumers easily identify healthy food options and stimulate the food industry to develop healthy options. The programme consists of a nutrient profile model with product group-specific criteria, based on international dietary guidelines. An independent International Scientific Committee, regularly reviews the criteria, taking into account a product’s level of saturated and trans fatty acids, added sugar, salt and dietary fibre. The “Healthy Choice” stamp can be found on more than 7,000 products from 120 manufacturers, retailers and caterers. National programmes have been launched in the Czech Republic, The Netherlands and in Poland. In The Netherlands, Choices covers 94 percent of the retail market and benefits from 91 percent consumer recognition. Consumer awareness of the logo in the Czech Republic grew from five percent in 2012 to 36 percent at the end of 2014.
IFBA members are engaged with governments and industry on a variety of initiatives to improve nutrition information to help consumers make informed decisions when they shop, to increase nutrition literacy and to help educate consumers about the importance of a balanced diet.

Canada: In support of the Government of Canada's ongoing commitment to promote healthy eating by helping Canadians make more informed nutrition choices, industry, including IFBA members, partnered with Health Canada in the fall of 2010 on the "Nutrition Facts Education Campaign." This multi-media campaign focuses on increasing understanding of the nutrition facts table, and in particular the % Daily Value, and explains how Canadians can use this information to make healthier choices. Learn more >
Mexico: In September 2012, IFBA associate, Alianza Por Una Vida Saludable (AVS), launched a new public education campaign, "Checa y Elige, claves de nutrición," which invites consumers to look at the nutrition facts of food and non-alcoholic beverages labelled with the "Checa y Elige" system. The labelling system provides consumers with a simple guide to the amount of key nutrients (per pack, item or portion) including energy (calories), saturated fats, sugars and sodium and percentage of the recommended daily intake, based on an average diet of 2,000 calories. The campaign is sponsored by 19 companies, including IFBA members, Ferrero, The Coca-Cola Company, Grupo Bimbo, Kellogg, Mars, Nestlé, PepsiCo and Unilever who since 2011 have been implementing the "Checa y Elige" label.
Thailand: Following the nation-wide introduction of new front-of-pack nutrition labels in the form of Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs), several leading food and beverage companies in Thailand joined forces to establish a Consumer Education Fund, which is administered by the Federation of Thai Industries (FTI). The fund was used in 2012 to support a successful public-private partnership with the Thai Food & Drug Administration, who launched a Consumer GDA Roadshow with the objective of "supplying consumers with sufficient and accurate information to enable them to choose food wisely".
U.S.A.: In April 2013, IFBA associate, the Grocery Manufacturers Association launched a simple, interactive and user-friendly web-based tool for consumers that supports the “Facts Up Front” nutrition labelling initiative launched in 2011. The interactive website aims to help consumers understand what that information means and how it relates to their calorie and nutrient needs. The website features a nutrition calculator, a nutrition quiz, shopping and meal planning tips and recipes. In March 2014, Facts Up Front complemented the online toolkit with the launch of a national consumer education campaign across a variety of print and digital media through October 2014 to build awareness of the label and increase nutrition knowledge. Learn more >
To bring together health experts from around the world, The Coca-Cola Company launched The Coca-Cola Company Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness™ (BIHW), an online information and education resource for health professionals and other stakeholders worldwide on the science, safety and benefits of beverages and their ingredients, and the importance of diet, nutrition and physical activity to health and well-being. Using evidence- based science and expert third-party research, positions and presentations, the BIHW supports the information needs of those wanting the latest on a variety of health and wellness topics. In addition to robust, science-based content, the BIHW also provides health professionals and others access to highly rated, science-based continuing education webinars. These education programmes are developed and presented by recognized experts from a variety of scientific disciplines including nutrition, medicine, weight management, behaviour change, food science and physical activity. Working with such professional societies as the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, the American College of Cardiology, practice groups of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and other education providers, the BIHW has supported educational webinars that have reached more than 80,000 health professionals and consistently earns quality ratings of 95 percent and higher. Visit the BIHW website >
General Mills joined in a strategic partnership with the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to help promote dietary guidelines for Americans. As part of this combined effort between government and industry to promote nutrition in the context of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, General Mills' Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition helped equip health professionals with information about the latest science and practical nutrition tips. Learn more at ChooseMyPlate.gov.
Kellogg works to promote an online interactive tool developed by the U.S. Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation’s Together Counts programme, which was designed to inspire active and healthy living. Kellogg has been showcasing the programme on company websites and through Facebook to encourage families to pledge to exercise and eat one meal together each day. The principle behind the Together Counts programme is “energy balance,” or the concept of balancing calories consumed with calories burned. Learn more >

Unilever: In the development and launch of its products and campaigns, Unilever works with experts and advisers in nutrition and health. The company’s community of 200 nutritionists shares its knowledge on scientific, nutritional and health issues relevant to its brands and also seeks independent advice to validate its nutrition activities. It collaborates with hundreds of research partners, including prominent food health institutes and universities such as the Top Institute of Food and Nutrition in the Netherlands and the India Diabetes Research Foundation, and shares much of its research through external presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Among them:

  • A paper illustrating the international application of the Daily Menu Method to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles on daily nutrient intakes.
  • Research in the area of weight management, satiety and hunger investigating a wide variety of ingredients for their efficacy and effectiveness.
  • The effect of tea on vascular reactivity (the ability of blood vessels to dilate) which is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and strokes.
  • Adding to its investigations on fats and their effects on health, a secondary analysis from the Alpha-Omega trial, which suggests beneficial effects of (vegetable) omega-3 on heart health in diabetics, and a review by Harika et al, showing that the fat intake of children worldwide is not optimal.

In 2009, Unilever partnered with the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS, and since that time, have hosted symposiums and forums with the world’s leading experts in diet, nutrition and health working in the field of fats and health to discuss nutritional guidelines for optimal fat quality, and to clarify current knowledge on the role of essential fats in child development; and to help relay clear and simple messages to the public — to help people to achieve a better quality of fat in their diet. In the area of salt reduction, Unilever has jointly developed one-day workshops with IUNS, with the aim of generating consumer-friendly approaches to promoting salt reduction, based on country-specific consumer insights that identify the barriers to people changing their behaviour.